Alan Cruse’s book is published as part of a series of thematic glossaries devoted to different fields of This volume is concerned with two disciplines: semantics and pragmatics. 96), one would also expect to find “lexicography” and “lexicon” . consist of more than one lexical constituent; second that it should be a single minimal semantic constituent’ (Cruse ). ‘The principle of idiom is that a. Lexical semantics Lexical semantics studies the meanings of words; the focus here The account given here largely follows that given in Cruse ().

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Sean added it Dec 21, We shall give the name utterance meaning to the totality of what the speaker intends to convey by making an utterance, within certain necessary limits.

Ill-definedness is well illustrated by terms which designate a region on a gradable scale such as middle-aged. Cambridge University Press Amazon.

Full text of “Alan Cruse”

Once the signal has been received by the receiver, it has to be decoded in order to retrieve the original message. Other books in this series. This is a deep and controversial ques- tion; it will be generally assumed in this book that meaning is in essence conceptual see Chapter 6but is most easily studied through language.

One way is to stipulate that linguistic meaning must either be conventionally associated with the linguistic forms used, or be inferable from the latter in conjunction with contextual knowledge. I may be asking too much, but it doesn’t seem to me that I came away with much more insight into the nature of word meaning.

Following an impulse towards generosity rather than austerity, we shall as a first step say that all meaning is potentially reflected in fitness for communicative intent. This does not just mean that they can occur singly or in groups of various sizes: Linguistic Typology Jae Jung Song.


Why, then, is The cat sat on the mat not a proposition? Differences of quality can be observed at all levels of specificity. Mary deliberately made a speech. As a first step towards moving away from a simple dichotomy, I would like to try to undermine the reader’s confidence in the notion of entailment. Notice that we are assuming that these sentences express propositions; that is to say, the sentences are being used in a particular context with particular reference.

Lexical Semantics by D. Alan Cruse

On the other hand, there is no radical change in basic ontological type as a result of combining the meanings. Whereas it is relatively easy to establish the minimum number of arguments for a predicate, how do we establish a maximum!

General terms may be better defined than their subclasses. That is, in effect, equivalent to saying that the two sentences always express the same proposition provided, of course, that corresponding definite referring expressions are co-referential.

There then follows a survey of the sorts of meaning borne by grammatical elements of various sorts, such as number and gender in the noun phrase, tense, aspect, and modality in connection with the verb, degree in the adjective, and so on.

Meaning in Language : An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics

At least some dogs are brown. The introduction also explains the typographic conventions used throughout semanticw Glossary and gives advice on using the book.

In Part 2, Chapter 5 provides a general introduction to the study of word meanings, first discussing whether there are any restrictions on what sort of meanings words can bear, then distinguishing the meaning of a word from that of a sentence or discourse, and the meanings of full lexical items from the meanings of grammatical elements. For each of the following pairs lexjcal sentences, say whether the propositional content of the members is the same or different: Russell added it Mar 24, Let us, then, briefly look at the semiotic environment of language in a typical conversation.


In such cases, it is bu to the hearer to reconstruct the full form of the proposition on the basis of contextual clues, but there is no doubt that it is the full form of the proposition that the speaker intends to convey, and this should semantis part of statement meaning.

For instance, one may smile or frown while speaking, and this may well ‘modulate’ crues message. The class of cats semaantics the class of aardvarks are disjunct in this sense, as are the class of red things and the class of green things. Contextual Variability of Word Meaning ; 6. This textbook establishes the essential facts about lexical relations that any formal theory of semantics will encompass. So can the relations be anything: Xis a dog does not entail Xcan bark.

Lexis Journal in English Lexicology Briefly: The following are illustrative but not necessarily exhaustive.

Lists with This Book. There is of course a significant semantkcs of overlap between disciplines, but characteristic- ally all have something idiosyncratic and unique in their approach the following remarks are merely illustrative. I was once reprimanded for pointing the soles of my feet at the Prime Minister of Iraq in Arab culture this is disrespectful:

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