DIGEMID. No description Transcript of DIGEMID. Es una institución técnico normativa que tiene como Funciones: • Analizar la situación. DIRECCIÓN GENERAL DE MEDICAMENTOS INSUMOS Y DROGAS DIGEMID ¿ QUÉ ES LA DIGEMID? FUNCIONES GENERALES QUE. Digemid alerts and the number of falsified medicines, since several alerts .. funciones de control y vigilancia de los productos farmacéuticos y.
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The Constitution guarantees the general right of free association; thus, according to article 2 subsection 13, any person has the right to associate and create foundations and other type of nonprofit organization, without requiring any previous authorization. However, there is no specific law related to the creation of Civil Society Organizations that funcionnes on anti-corruption and good governance.
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Funcionez to article of the Constitution, Regional and Local governments need to promote citizen participation in the supervision of public budget. The promotion of citizen participation allows the creation of civil organizations that focus on good governance.
A YES score is earned when freedom to assemble into groups promoting good governance or anti-corruption is protected by law, regardless of political ideology, religion or objectives. Diemid with a history of violence or terrorism within last ten years may be banned. Groups sympathetic to or related to banned groups must be allowed if they have no history of violence.
A NO score is earned when any single non-violent group is legally prohibited from organizing to promote good governance or anti-corruption.
These groups may include non-violent separatist groups, political parties or religious groups. There is no specific law about sources of funding for CSOs, thus they are free to accept funding from any foreign or domestic sources. The normative of this agency excludes international cooperation that is received without government participation through any kind of national entity ; except when the cooperating agency uses any type of tax benefits, uses government resources, or is a bilateral or multilateral agency in which the state is involved.
Four years ago, there was a big discussion around CSOs funding sources and APCI functions because there were modifications of article 1 from Lawarticle 3 from Law and article 9 fromwhich involve the creation of restrictions to funclones sources. These new articles established the fnuciones to register the projects or activities and the expenses that came from international private cooperation.
NGOs complained about these modifications and finally funcionds Tribunal Constitucional established that the registration had to be voluntary for NGOs that wanted to get benefits from the Digemkd System. Modificada por Ley de 6 diciembre y Ley de agosto De igual a igual. A Vigemid score may still be earned if funds from groups with a history of violence or terrorism within last ten years are banned.
A NO score is earned if there any formal legal or regulatory bans on foreign or domestic funding sources for NGOs focused on anti-corruption or good governance.
The modifications of the law established that all financing and international donations to NGOs operating in Peru have to be registered at the state APCI. The new law restricts the possibility of hiring international cooperation funds by NGOs, whether handled by public or private funds, in mandatory pre-registration and records of the APCI. In addition, they condition such employment to harmonize technical cooperation based on national development policy and the public interest.
Finally, Tribunal Constitucional established that such modifications were unconstitutional, thus the register is voluntary for NGOs that want to get benefits from the Official System. These declarations are given by their own initiatives. Nevertheless, the process of legal constitution is difficult and takes a long time, which in practice can be considered a barrier. The document is the work of lawyer Maria Beatriz Parodi, who summarizes the process of creation in the following steps:.
Decide the name of the association and give the name to the Public Records Office of the city where the association will be created; check if the name is already registered. There cannot be two associations with the same or a very similar name. Once that is verified, the name can be used. NGOs focused on promoting good governance or anti-corruption can freely organize with little to no interaction with the government, other than voluntary registration.
NGOs focused on promoting good governance or anti-corruption must go through formal steps to form, requiring interaction with the state such as licenses or registration.
Formation is possible, though there is some burden on the NGO.
Some unofficial barriers, such as harassment of minority groups, may occur. Other than pro-government groups, NGOs focused on promoting good governance or anti-corruption are effectively prohibited, either by official requirements or by unofficial means, such as intimidation or fear. One of its principal pillars is citizen participation, as a way to distribute power.
This practice allows them to oversee public management, control the public administration of money resources, procurement processes, etc.
Related to this decentralization program, there are good governance CSOs that are actively engaged in politics and the policy-making process through civil participation. They encourage civil society to participate with their proposals and views on key laws, such as the Law of Regionalization and the Law of Municipalities. Besides citizen participation, there is a CSO that participates in the electoral process, giving or facilitating information to all citizens, through internet websites, or organizing debates, and as observers on the day of elections.
This organization, called Transparencia, has a direct relation with the electoral process. They research and make reports that can usually be accessed by the public. When they find irregularities, they denounce them through the media. However, their activities are not involved with the political and policy-making process. They try to establish structural changes. Non-governmental organizations focused on anti-corruption or good governance are an essential component of the political process.
NGOs provide widely valued insights and have political power. Those NGOs play a leading role in shaping public opinion on political matters. Those NGOs are willing to articulate opinions on political matters, but have little access to decision makers. They have some influence over public opinion, but considerably less than political figures. Those NGOs are unwilling to take positions on political issues.
They are not relevant to changes in public opinion. However, there are many media reports that have been strongly censured. There are past cases of independent journalists who tried to denounce some authorities for corruption and were harmed.
The cases are detailed in related questions below. We can say that the CSOs have more liberty to make denunciations and publish reports, which is not the case of individual persons who want to denounce something on their own.
They aim to perform of structural changes. A YES score is earned if there were no NGOs shut down by the government or forced to cease operations because of their work on corruption-related issues funcionws the study period.
YES funcjones a positive score. A NO score is earned if any NGO has been effectively shut down by the government or forced to cease operations because of its work on corruption-related issues during the study period. If it seems likely that the NGO was forced to cease operations due to its work, then the indicator is scored as a NO.
Corruption is defined broadly to include any abuses of power, not just the passing of bribes. Over the past year, there is no evidence of society activists working specifically on corruption issues that have been imprisoned. However, there is the case of one British religious environmental activist named Paul Mc Auley, who suddenly had problems with his immigration papers. He was working in the Amazon against private petroleum investors who were damaging the environment.
He was asked to leave the country because he did not have the foreign license needed to be in the country as an activist. This case was denounced by public media and is in a current judicial process. This action was perceived as an cunciones of revenge and funcoines persecution for having led the protest of the indigenous communities of the forest against the legislative decrees andCongress repealed.
These cases can be reflected as imprisoned acts committed by the government, however, these are not usual cases ve the country. It is important to notice that there is space for civil society activists to express and denounce these irregularities, so they can be clarified. A NO score is earned if any fumciones was jailed in relation to work covering corruption.
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If it seems funciojes that the person was imprisoned due to his or her work, then the indicator is scored as funcioness NO. During the past year, there is no record of society activists working specifically on corruption issues that have been imprisoned.
Nevertheless, the Instituto de Prensa y Sociedad keeps a record of the abuses made against journalists, who work as social activists on corruptions issues. Most of them were made in regions of the country outside Lima, and against journalists who denounce corruption acts.
A YES score is earned if there were no documented cases of NGO activists covering corruption being assaulted in the specific study period. A NO score is earned if there were any documented cases during the study period of assault to an activist who covers corruption. Last year, there was no record of society activists working specifically on corruption issues that have been murdered.
Nevertheless, there are two past cases of journalists killed apparently by local authorities because of denunciations, or intentions to denounce corruption acts. One case occurred in Pucallpa, for drug trafficking charges on the local authorities, and the other one was in Yungay, originated in a denunciation on corruption issues in public institutions. These cases are described below question 11c.
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Consejo de Prensa Peruana http: A YES score is earned if there were no documented cases of NGO activists being killed because of their work covering corruption in the specific study period. A NO score is earned if there were any documented cases funciiones the study period where a person was killed related to a corruption trial, funcoones or investigation. If it is reasonable that a person was killed in relation to his or her work on corruption issues, then the indicator is scored as a NO.
In law, citizens can organize into trade unions according to their common interests. Under this normative, workers are free to organize unions and ask for better labor conditions. The government recognizes the right to organize unions, collective negotiations, and strikes.
The National Constitution establishes freedom to collective negotiation and the search of conflict resolutions. Unions can be formed funcjones enterprises — professionals that work in the same company- activities -professionals, specialists or workers of two or more companies who do the same activity- or guilds — workers of different companies who do the same work, or are in the same profession or specialty.
To be constituted and survive, unions must recruit at least 20 workers in the case of enterprise unions, or 50 workers in the case of unions of a different nature. Decreto Decreto Supremo TR del 30 de septiembreLey de 21 de diciembre de y sus modificarorias en Ley de 6 de enero de A YES score is earned when trade unions are allowed by law, regardless of political ideology, religion or objectives.
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A NO score is earned when any single non-violent trade union is legally prohibited by the government from organizing. At the moment, there are many trade unions that represent interests in private and public sectors — for example SUTEP, which fynciones teachers, and CGTP, which represents many trade unions.
The contract stipulates that employees agree not to belong to any trade union or association and do not participate funcionws strikes organized by any union or association.
Trade unions are common and are an important part of the political process and political discourse. Trade union organizers have widely understood rights. Trade unions are free from intimidation or violence.
Trade unions exist, but are not always relevant to politics or policy debates. Barriers to organizing trade unions exist, such as intimidation at digemi, or retribution firings.