Diodorus Siculus fl. 1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian. He is known for writing the monumental universal history Bibliotheca historica. Diodorus Siculus, Greek historian of Agyrium in Sicily, ca. 80–20 BCE, wrote forty books of world history, called Library of History, in three parts: mythical history. Diodorus opens the Fourth Book \^ith a defence of Diodorus took generously from a Praise of Heracles Uterary sources, a history of Sicily and the western.

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If you find a mistake though, please let me know! In a word, this island is well supplied with diodorhs of sweet water which not only makes the use of it enjoyable for those who pass their life there but also contribute to the health and vigour of their bodies. And since their ventures turned out according to their expectations, they amassed great wealth and essayed to voyage beyond hsitorica Pillars of Heracles into the sea which men call the ocean.

And it has come to pass that this shrine has been held in an honour beyond the ordinary, both at the time of its building and in comparatively recent days down even to our own hstorica. Also many Romans, distinguished men who have performed great deeds, have offered vows to this god, and these vows they have performed after the completion of their successes.

And after being storm-tossed for many days they were carried ashore on the island we mentioned above, and when they had observed its felicity and nature they caused it to be known to all men. For it was their historoca that, since they were masters of the sea, they would thus be able to move, households and all, to an island which was unknown to their conquerors.

Opposite that part of Gaul which lies on the ocean and directly across from the Hercynian Forest, 7 as it is called, which is the largest of any in Europe of which tradition tells us, there are many islands out in the ocean of which the largest is that known as Britain. But we shall give a detailed account of the events of this conquest in connection with the appropriate period of time, 9 and at present we shall discuss the island and the tin which is found in it.

This island stretches obliquely along the coast of Europe, and the point where it is least distant from the mainland, we are told, is the promontory which men call Cantium, 10 and this is about one hundred stades from the land, 11 at the place where the sea has its outlet, 12 whereas the second promontory, known as Belerium, 13 is said to be a voyage of four days from the mainland, and the last, writers tell us, extends out into the open sea and is named Orca.

They use chariots, for instance, in their wars, even as tradition tells us the old Greek heroes did in the Trojan War, and their dwellings are humble, being built for the most part out of reeds or logs. The method they employ of harvesting their grain crops is to cut off no more than the heads and store them away in roofed granges, and then each day they pick out the ripened heads and grind them, getting in this way their food.

Their way of living is modest, since they are well clear of the luxury which is begotten of wealth. The island is also thickly populated, and its climate is extremely cold, as one bibljotheca expect, since it actually lies under the Great Bear. It is held by many kings and potentates, who for the most part live at peace among themselves.

The inhabitants of Britain who dwell about the promontory known as Belerium 17 are especially hospitable to strangers and have adopted a civilized manner of life because of their intercourse with merchants of other bibliothca.

They it is who work the tin, treating the bed which bears it in an ingenious manner. Then they work the tin into pieces the size of knuckle-bones and convey it to an island which lies off Britain and is histofica Ictis; 19 for at the time of ebb-tide the space between this island and the mainland becomes dry and they can take the tin in large quantities over to the island on their wagons.

Directly opposite the part of Scythia which lies above Galatia there is an island out in the open sea which is called Basileia. But since the creators of this fictitious tale have siculhs and all erred, and have been refuted by what has transpired at later times, we must give ear to the accounts which are truthful; for the fact is that amber is gathered on the island we have mentioned and is brought by the natives to the opposite continent, and that it is conveyed through the continent to the regions known to us, as we have stated.

Now Celtica was ruled in ancient times, so we are told, by a renowned man who had a daughter who was of unusual stature and far excelled in beauty all the other maidens.

Diodorus Siculus – Wikipedia

But she, because of her strength of body and marvellous comeliness, was so haughty that she kept refusing every man who wooed her fiodorus marriage, since she believed that no one of her wooers was worthy of her.

And when he had attained to man’s estate and had succeeded to the throne of his fathers, he subdued a large part of the neighbouring territory and accomplished great feats in war. Becoming renowned for his bravery, he called his subjects Galatae or Gauls 24 after himself, and these in turn gave their name to all of Galatia or Gaul.

Gaul is inhabited by many tribes of different size; for the largest number some two hundred thousand biblotheca, and the smallest fifty thousand, one of the latter 25 standing on terms of kinship and friendship with the Romans, a relationship which has endured from ancient times down to our own day.

The largest one of those which flow into our waters is the Rhone, which has its sources in the Alps and empties into the sea by five mouths.

And almost all of them become frozen over by the cold and thus bridge their own streams, and since the natural smoothness of the ice makes the crossing slippery for those who pass over, they sprinkle chaff on it and thus have a crossing which is safe.


Consequently many of the Italian traders, induced by the love of money which characterizes them, believe that the love of wine of these Gauls is their own godsend. For around their wrists and arms they wear bracelets, around their necks heavy necklaces of solid gold, 29 and huge rings they wear as well, and even corselets of gold. Consequently, when they are eating, their moustaches historjca entangled in the food, and when they are drinking, the beverage passes, as it were, through a kind of a strainer.

LacusCurtius • Diodorus Siculus — Book V Chapters 19‑40

The service at the meals is performed by the youngest children, both male and female, who are of suitable age; and near at hand are their fireplaces heaped with coals, and on them are caldrons and spits holding whole pieces of meat. Brave warriors they reward with the choicest portions of the meat, in the same manner as the poet introduces Ajax as honoured by the chiefs after he returned victorious from his single combat with Hector: They bring along to war also their free men to serve them, choosing them out from among the poor, and these attendants they use in battle as siculhs and as shield-bearers.

It is also their custom, when they are formed for battle, to step out in front of the line and to challenge the most valiant men from among their opponents to single combat, brandishing diodoeus weapons in front of them to terrify their adversaries. And some men among them, we are told, boast that they have not accepted an equal weight of gold for the head they show, displaying a barbarous sort of greatness of soul; for not to sell that which constitutes a witness and proof of one’s valour is a noble thing, but to continue to fight against one of our own diodirus, after he is dead, is to descend to the level of beasts.

Some of them have iron cuirasses, chain-wrought, but others are satisfied with the armour which Nature has given them and go into battle naked. In place of the short sword they carry long broad-swords which are hung on chains of iron or bronze and are worn along the right flank.

And some of them gather up their shirts with belts plated with gold or silver. Some of these javelins come from the forge straight, others twist in and out in spiral shapes for their entire length, the purpose being that the thrust may not only cut the flesh, but mangle it as well, and that the withdrawal of the spear may lacerate the wound.

They are also boasters and threateners and are fond of pompous language, and yet they have sharp wits and are hstorica without cleverness at learning. These men sing to the accompaniment of instruments which are like lyres, and their songs may be either of praise or of obloquy.

(Book V, continued)

Philosophers, as we may call them, and men learned in religious affairs are unusually honoured among them and are called dioxorus them Druids. They also observe a custom which is especially astonishing and incredible, in case they are taking thought with respect to matters of great concern; for in such cases they devote to death a human being and plunge a dagger into him in the region above the diaphragm, 33 and when the stricken victim has fallen they read the future from the manner of his fall and from the twitching of his limbs, as well as from the gushing of the blood, having learned to place confidence in an ancient and long-continued practice of observing such matters.

In this way, even among the wildest barbarians, does passion give place before wisdom, and Ares stands in awe of the Muses. The peoples who dwell in the interior above Massalia, those on the slopes of the Alps, and those histogica this side the Pyrenees mountains binliotheca called Celts, whereas the peoples who are established above this land of Celtica in the parts which stretch to the north, both along the ocean hibliotheca along the Hercynian Bibliothecw, and all the peoples who come after these, as far as Scythia, bib,iotheca known as Gauls; the Romans, however, include all these nations together under a single name, calling them one and all Gauls.

Their children are usually born with grayish hair, but as they grow older the colour of their hair changes to that of their parents. Captives also are used by them historca victims for their sacrifices in honour of the gods.

Certain of them likewise slay, together with the human beings, such animals as are taken in war, or burn them or do away with them in some other vengeful fashion. It is their practice to sleep upon the ground on the skins of wild beasts and to tumble with a catamite on bibliothec side.

In ancient times these two peoples, namely, the Iberians and the Celts, kept warring among themselves over the land, but when later they arranged their differences and settled upon the land altogether, and when they went further and agreed to intermarriage with each other, because of such intermixture the two peoples received the appellation given above. And since it was two powerful nations that united and the land of theirs was fertile, it sidulus to pass that the Celtiberians advanced far in fame and were subdued by the Romans with difficulty and only after they had faced them in battle over a hisotrica period.

They wear rough black cloaks, the wool of which resembles the hair of goats. And a peculiar and strange custom obtains among them: Careful and cleanly as they are in their ways of living, they nevertheless observe one practice which is low and partakes of great uncleanness; for they consistently use hustorica to bathe the body and wash their teeth with it, thinking that in this practice is constituted the care and healing of the body.

They hurl the javelin with good effect, even over a long distance, and, in fine, are doughty in dealing their blows. Since they are nimble and wear light arms, they are swift both in flight and in pursuit, but when it comes to enduring the historifa of a stiff fight they are far inferior to the Celtiberians.

And this brigandage they continually practise in a spirit of complete disdain; for using as they do light arms and being altogether nimble and swift, they are a most difficult people for other men to subdue.


Consequently, although the Romans in their frequent campaigns against the Lusitanians rid them of their great spirit of disdain, they were nevertheless unable, often as they bbibliotheca set about it, to put a complete end to their plundering. And this was the reason why the Phoenicians, as they transported this silver to Greece and Asia and to all other peoples, acquired great wealth.

So far indeed did the merchants go in their greed that, in case their boats were fully laden and there still remained a great amount of silver, they would hammer the lead off the anchors and have the silver perform the service of the lead.

The manner, then, in which the Iberians mine and work the silver is in part as follows. Consequently a man may well be filled with wonder both at the nature of the region and at the diligence displayed by the men who labour there. For their first labours are remunerative, thanks to the excellent quality of the earth for this sort of thing, and they are ever coming upon more splendid veins, rich in both silver and gold; for all the ground hitorica that region is a tangled network of veins which wind in many ways.

And a man may well marvel at the inventiveness of the craftsman, 52 in connection not only with this invention but with many other greater ones as well, the fame of which has encompassed the entire inhabited world and of which we shall give a detailed and precise account when we come to the period of Archimedes.

It was from these mines, that is, that they drew their continued growth, hiring the ablest mercenaries to be found and winning with their aid many and great wars.

For the Phoenicians, it appears, were from ancient times clever men in making discoveries to their gain, and the Italians are equally clever in leaving no gain to anyone else.

This city is a colony of the Romans, and because of its convenient situation it possesses the finest market to be found in those regions.

The Ligurians inhabit a land which is stony and altogether wretched, and the life they live is, by reason of the toils and the continuous hardships they endure in their labour, a grievous one and unfortunate. Since their labour entails such hardship as this, it is only by perseverance that they surmount Nature and that after many distresses they gather scanty harvests, and no more.

By reason of their continued physical activity and minimum of nourishment the Ligurians are slender and vigorous of body. Speaking generally, in these regions the women possess the vigour and might of men, and the men those of wild beasts.

Indeed, they say that often times in campaigns the mightiest warrior among the Gauls has been challenged to single combat by a quite slender Ligurian and slain.

As traders, for instance, they sail over the Sardinian and Libyan seas, readily casting themselves into dangers from which there is no succour; for although the vessels they use are more cheaply fashioned than make-shift boats and their equipment is the minimum of that usual on ships, yet to one’s astonishment and terror they will face the most fearful conditions which storms create.

This people, excelling as they did in manly vigour, in ancient times possessed great territory and founded many notable cities. Likewise, because they also availed themselves of powerful naval forces and were masters of the sea over a long period, they caused the sea along Italy to be named Tyrrhenian after them; and because they also perfected the organization of land forces, they were the inventors of the salpinxas it is called, a discovery of the greatest usefulness for war and named after them the “Tyrrhenian trumpet.

And, speaking generally, they have now renounced the spirit which was emulated by their forebears from ancient times, and passing their lives as they do in drinking-bouts and unmanly amusements, it is easily understood how they have lost the glory in warfare which their fathers possessed. In general, indeed, Tyrrhenia, being altogether fertile, lies in extended open fields and is traversed at intervals by areas which rise up like hills and yet are fit for tillage; and it enjoys moderate rainfall not only in the winter season but in the summer as well.

The Loeb Editor’s Notes: The Greek name is derived from the Phoenician ” Gadir ” or ” Agadir ,” which the ancient writers understood to mean “citadel” or “fortress.

At a later time Caesar conferred Roman citizenship on the city. Michael’s Mount, an island in Mount’s Bay of Cornwall; this is connected with the mainland by a causeway which is passable only at low tide. For the difficulties in identifying Ictis, see Rev. Although that author gives too much weight to folk memories, he does show that a close reading of Diodorus can support other identifications on and near the constantly changing coast of Cornwall.

The simplest solution might still be to put Ictis at St. Michael’s Mount and posit the disappearance of the other islets: It was probably this practice of the Romans which led Diodorus, who knew our Danube as the Ister, to think it was a distinct river; and it is not likely that the entire course of the Danube was known at this time.

Caesar, Gallic War6. Davies, Roman Mines in Europep For further details on tooth care among the Romans — and siculs important additional source — see my note on the article Dentifricium in Smith’s Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. Demetrius of Phalerum had applied the riddle to the capitalists of Attica, who did not receive the returns they expected from their investments in the Attic silver-mines.

The observation of Demetrius was preserved in Poseidonius, who is the source of the different forms in wiculus it appears in Strabo 3. These are the Scilly Isles, lying just off the tip bibliotgeca Cornwall; the ancients historicaa them as off Spain because of the easy access to them by way of the coast of Spain and the Bay dlodorus Biscay. To Ajax then were given of the chine Slices, full-length, unto his honour. Images with borders lead to more information. The thicker the border, the more information.

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