API publications necessarily address problems of a general nature. With respect to particular circumstances, local, state, and federal laws and regulations. Recommended Practice for the Design of Offshore Facilities Against Fire and Blast Loading, First Edition. American Petroleum Institute (API) First Edition, April 76p. This document provides guidelines and recommended practice for the satisfactory design of.
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Ageing assessments should confirm that structural arrangements are apj appropriate for inventory levels that exist on the installation. Resources Technical policy relating to seismic event hazards Jack-up self-elevating installations: Far higher pressures have been measured in testing, capable of causing serious structural damage similar to that which led to an escalation of events on Piper Alpha.
Structural elements and systems are used in provision of control and barriers for explosions and dp likely to be designated safety critical elements.
More emphasis on requirements for providing inherent safety is now required. Prior to the Piper Alpha incident inlimited design guidance for offshore structures to limit the consequences of fires and explosions existed. In order to focus effort where it is most needed, a risk screening process is usually adopted which classifies installations and modules according to their explosion risk apu.
International Journal of Impact EngineeringVol. Care is required in converting back to the actual structure to ensure the additional stresses are captured, particularly at support locations of both the beam and at equipment support points. Much of this data is currently being harmonised through ISO to a set of appropriate criteria. This website uses non-intrusive cookies to improve your user experience.
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Successfully dealing 2cb extreme uncertain events has been shown in the past to be dependent on good engineering practice, as well as appropriate QRA, such as providing continuity between elements, ductile details which avoid high stress concentrations at critical points weld details for example so that the structure can take up the energy of the blast by stable deformations and plasticity.
The failure history of large ocean going vessels 2db a significant cause of concern in the shipping industry. Worldwide practice Prior to the Piper Alpha incident inlimited design guidance for offshore structures to limit the consequences of fires and explosions existed.
The basic function of a FPS is to receive hydrocarbons dp the wellhead, process the hydrocarbons, and store The methodology adopted was to conduct a risk assessment ai a typical bid to arrive at the sound cost estimate for the fire protection systems.
This policy should have no impact for new installations as designs should incorporate the required regulatory and technical principles. A key area which requires detailed consideration are the structural details which would perform adequately under static loading but become brittle and possibly fail under a dynamic loading consideration. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate a practical approach to the cost estimation of fire protection systems during bidding stage using Simplified Risk Assessment SRA methodologies.
Structural behaviour under explosion hazards
Introduction Industrial scale fire, explosion and environmental pollution from the production, refining, and distribution of petroleum remains one of the major concerns impacting human life and environment, incurring business losses and jeopardizing organizational reputation. A fire and blast information group was subsequently established through which a number of important technical notes have been published.
Health and Safety Executive. Ongoing operational safety shall be demonstrated by appropriate design capacity in conjunction with an appropriate integrity management system to ensure degradation is kept within acceptable limits. Structural strengthening of offshore topsides structures as part of explosion risk reduction methods, The Steel Construction Institute, HSE rr Limiting a potential gas cloud size is an important issue in the design phase as well as keeping the design pressures inherently lower generally through design to minimise the effects of an explosion and fire is a key component on an FPSO facility.
Analysis and Design of Profiled Blast Walls.
Log in to your subscription Username. Fire and Explosion Guidance Part 1: The performance standard required for these elements and systems should be clear to encapsulate not just the blast wall capacity, but the connections to the primary structure and the response of the primary structure, and be subject to scrutiny associated with the verification scheme for the installation. Some guidance from onshore petrochemical guidelines existed but this was not always appropriate for offshore applications.
Sheriff’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition. Some examples of this include the common practice of sniping secondary beams to minimise weld distortions when attached to webs of plate girders as part of the deck. Is this page useful? Previous research has shown that as the gas cloud increases a runaway length can be reached at which point the overpressure increases significantly. The most complex and extensive structural modelling process adopted is the finite element method which can potentially capture all of the non-linear material and geometric behaviour together with the dynamics.
This is typically taken as the mid-span with the assumption of a uniformly distributed mass and stiffness. Subsequently, frequency analysis was conducted using parts count methodology to cumulate the frequency of fire scenarios. The method relies on a kinematic similarity between the actual and idealised spring mass, which for a beam simply means the velocity and displacement of the spring mass corresponds to a point on the beam which best describes the global behaviour.
Even if confinement is reduced, high levels of congestion can actually create confinement and enhance the explosion experienced by the surrounding plant and structure. Advanced search Show search help. This document provides guidelines and recommended practice for the satisfactory design of offshore structures against fire and blast loading. This can potentially lead to larger gas cloud sizes as they would not be limited by the volume of the module as on a fixed topside.
Also the option of minimising congested areas by splitting up the processing into smaller units and introducing sufficient gaps between the units is unlikely due to space constraints and economics.
Some packages can also potentially capture contact, brittle and ductile behaviour of the structure.
However for existing installations remedial measures may be required to demonstrate robustness of the installation and changes to inventory profile may also require some remedials.
Abstract Projects with accelerated engineering, procurement, and construction EPC schedules are becoming common in the oil and gas industry with Apj Majors keen on quick and guaranteed returns on investment.